logo/base Created with Sketch.


  1. European Association for Study of Liver, Asociacion Latinoamericana para el Estudio del Higado. EASL-ALEH Clinical Practice Guidelines: Non-invasive tests for evaluation of liver disease severity and prognosis. J Hepatol. 2015;63(1):237-264. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.04.006.
  2. Karlas T, Petroff D, Sasso M, et al. Individual patient data meta-analysis of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) technology for assessing steatosis. J Hepatol. 2017;66(5):1022-1030. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2016.12.022.
  3. Recio E, Cifuentes C, Macías J, et al. Interobserver concordance in controlled attenuation parameter measurement, a novel tool or the assessment of hepatic steatosis on the basis of transient elastography. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;25(8):905-911.doi:10.1097/MEG.0b013e32835f4c3d.
  4. Stefanescu H, Marasco G, Calès P, et al. A novel spleen-dedicated stiffness measurement by FibroScan® improves the screening of high-risk oesophageal varices. Liver Int. 2020;40(1):175-185. doi:10.1111/liv.14228.
  5. Ginès P, Graupera I, Lammert F, et al. Screening for liver fibrosis in the general population: a call for action. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2016;1(3):256-260. doi:10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30081-4.
  1. Marcellin P, Kutala BK. Liver diseases: A major, neglected global public health problem requiring urgent actions and large-scale screening. Liver Int. 2018;38 Suppl 1:2-6. doi:10.1111/liv.13682.
  1. Asrani SK, Devarbhavi H, Eaton J, Kamath PS. Burden of liver diseases in the world. J Hepatol. 2019;70(1):151-171. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2018.09.014.
  2. Wong VW-S, Adams LA, de Lédinghen V, Wong GL-H, Sookoian S. Noninvasive biomarkers in NAFLD and NASH – current progress and future promise. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;15(8):461-478. doi:10.1038/s41575-018-0014-9.
  1. Kwok R, Choi KC, Wong GL-H, et al. Screening diabetic patients for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness measurements: a prospective cohort study. Gut. 2016;65(8):1359-1368. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309265.
  1. Younossi ZM. The epidemiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Clin Liver Dis (Hoboken). 2018;11(4):92-94. doi:10.1002/cld.710.
  1. Seitz HK, Bataller R, Cortez-Pinto H, et al. Alcoholic liver disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4(1):16. doi:10.1038/s41572-018-0014-7.
  1. WHO. Guidelines for the Screening Care and Treatment of Persons with Hepatitis C Infection. April 2014. http://public.ebookcentral. proquest.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1975017. Accessed March 4, 2020.
  1. WHO. Hepatitis B. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b. Accessed February 14, 2020.
  2. WHO. Department of HIV/AIDS, the Global Hepatitis Programme. World Hepatitis Day 2017, WHO guide on advocacy and communications. 2017. https://www.who.int/campaigns/hepatitis-day/2017/campaign-brief.pdf?ua=1
  1. Younossi Z, Anstee QM, Marietti M, et al. Global burden of NAFLD and NASH: trends, predictions, risk factors and prevention. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;15(1):11-20. doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2017.109.
  1. Ahmad J, Lau. Clinical applications of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) in hepatic medicine. HMER. Published online February 2013:1. doi:10.2147/HMER.S9049.
  1. Estes C, Razavi H, Loomba R, Younossi Z, Sanyal AJ. Modeling the epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrates an exponential increase in burden of disease: Estes et al. Hepatology. 2018;67(1):123-133. doi:10.1002/hep.29466.
  2. Ofusu 2018
  3. Friedman, 2018
  4. Lanthier, 2018
  5. Singal AK, Bataller R, Ahn J, Kamath PS, Shah VH. ACG Clinical Guideline: Alcoholic Liver Disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2018 Feb;113(2):175-194. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2017.469 . Epub 2018 Jan 16. PMID: 29336434 ; PMCID: PMC6524956.
  6. Rehm, J. et al. Alcohol as a risk factor for liver cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta- analysis. Drug Alcohol Rev.29, 437–445 (2010).
  7. WHO. Hepatitis B. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b. Accessed February 14, 2020.
  8. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the management of hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2017 Aug;67(2):370-398. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.03.021. Epub 2017 Apr 18. PMID: 28427875.
  9. Lim JK, Flamm SL, Singh S, Falck-Ytter YT; Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American Gastroenterological Association. American Gastroenterological Association Institute Guideline on the Role of Elastography in the Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis. Gastroenterology. 2017 May;152(6):1536-1543. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.03.017. PMID: 28442119.
  10. Mederacke I, Wursthorn K, Kirschner J, Rifai K, Manns MP, Wedemeyer H, Bahr MJ. Food intake increases liver stiffness in patients with chronic or resolved hepatitis C virus infection. Liver International 2009;29:1500-1506.
  11. Arena U, Lupsor Platon M, Stasi C, Moscarella S, Assarat A, Bedogni G, Piazzolla V, et al. Liver stiffness is influenced by a standardized meal in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus at different stages of fibrotic evolution. Hepatology 2013;58:65-72.
  12. Berzigotti A, De Gottardi A, Vukotic R, Siramolpiwat S, Abraldes JG, Garcia-Pagan JC, Bosch J. Effect of meal ingestion on liver stiffness in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. PLoS One 2013;8:e58742.
  13. Boursier J, Zarski JP, de Ledinghen V, Rousselet MC, Sturm N, Lebail B, Fouchard-Hubert I, et al. Determination of reliability criteria for liver stiffness evaluation by transient elastography. Hepatology 2013;57:1182-1191.
  14. Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine JE, et al. The diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guidance from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2018;67(1):328-357. doi:10.1002/hep.29367.
  15. Ferraioli G, Wong VW-S, Castera L, et al. Liver Ultrasound Elastography: An Update to the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology Guidelines and Recommendations. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2018;44(12):2419-2440. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.07.008.
  16. Shiha G, Ibrahim A, Helmy A, et al. Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) consensus guidelines on invasive and non-invasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis: a 2016 update. Hepatol Int. 2017;11(1):1-30. doi:10.1007/s12072-016-9760-3.
  17. SmartExam: E. Bardou-Jacquet et al, Validation of the Continuous Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAPc) using the MRI-PDFF as reference. EASL 2022 poster #FRI-228​.
  18. Cohen JC, et al. Science. 2011;332(6037): 1519- 1523.